What Is Clindamycin
Clindamycin / Cleocin is a kind of antibiotic. Clindamycin affect bacterial protein synthesis by acting on cells in the 50s ribosomal subunit susceptible to inhibit peptide chain elongation! Generally Clindamycin bacteriostatic antibiotics belong to! But high concentrations of clindamycin can kill highly sensitive bacteria! Clindamycin oral can be absorbed quickly and fully (approximately 90%). Clindamycin is widely distributed in the body and can enter some of the major organs , body fluids and bone tissue, which is the first choice drug treat Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Concentration of clindamycin in fetal blood is thicker than lincomycin that concentration of clindamycin up to 3.8% in milk. Clindamycin seldom can enter central system through normal blood-brain barrier. Spectrum antibiotic of clindamycin are mainly Gram-positive cocci including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, etc. and Gram-positive bacteria including tetanus, diphtheria etc. Allergic bacterium to clindamycin include Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium acnes, really, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus digestion, most digestive bacteria, Clostridium perfringens and some actinomycetes. Clindamycin is not allergic to fecal streptococci, some Clostridium, slave card bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses. Staphylococcus usually has cross-resistance to the drug.
What Is Clindamycin Used For
What is Clindamycin used for ??
Treatment of Respiratory tract Infections: Clindamycin has good effect and is safe in the treatment of which is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, hemolytic streptococcus and other aerobic Gram-positive bacteria in respiratory tract infections. Clindamycin efficiency and cure are higher than metronidazole in the treatment of pulmonary secondary anaerobic infections in cancer patients whose lungs had received radiation therapy. However, due to the special nature of the patient’s body, adverse reactions rate are higher than the normal population during the course of treatment, but still below the adverse reaction rate of metronidazole.
Treatment of gynecological infections: clindamycin has a good effect in the treatment of gynecological pelvic inflammatory disease and bacterial vaginosis. Clindamycin Phosphate and amikacin combined treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease has the same effect as traitional therapy and there is lower incidence of adverse reaction rate.
Treatment in dentistry to anti-infection: Stomatology infecctions are mostly anaerobic infections. In the past, metronidazole and tinidazole were prefered in treatment of dentistry infecctions clindamycin . As clindamycin has good inhibitory effect on Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, now it is considered that using clindamycin to treat stomatology infection has better effect.
Clindamycin oral is convenient, which is safe in short-term intake, has no allergic reaction and adverse effect, has few side effects, has effect on anaerobes, and has obvious treatment effect! Clindamycin can preferrable oral drug to prevent acute suppurative gingivitis.
Application in dermatology: Compound clindamycin liniment is safe and convient in the treatment of acne.
Oral: hydrochloride. When adult has severe infection,it can take 150-300mg C oral , and maximum dosage is 450mg. Frequency is every 6 hours one day. for children with severe infection, dosage can be 8-16mg / kg, up to 20mg / kg when necessary with 3-4 times drinking. palmitic acid lipid hydrochloride is for childrento drink.
Injection: clindamycin phosphate injection is used to treat adult aerobic Gram-positive infections with intravenous or intramuscular injection. Daily dosage is 0.6-1.2g. Anaerobic infections patient’s daily dosage is 1.2-2.7g and sever infection patient’s daily dosage can be day 4.8g in 2-4 times drinking. Children above one month with severe infection can have a daily dosage of 15-25mg / kg and a very severe infection can have a daily dosage of 25-40mg / kg in 3-4 times by intramuscular injection , once no more than 0.6g,otherwise there is need to have administered intravenously.
Formulation: Clindamycin hydrochloride capsules (Clindamycin hcl), Clindamycin Phosphate Injection and Clindamycin Phosphate Injection. clindamycin phosphate topical gel
Clindamycin Side Effects
Clindamycin can cause gastrointestinal side effects: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, bloating, diarrhea rash, leukopenia elevated transaminase. The drug can cause superinfection, pseudomembranous colitis or difficulty breathing, swelling of the lips, nasal swelling, tearing and allergic reactions. The drug causes pseudomembranous colitis with incidence exceeding 2%. About 10 percent of people who is treated with clindamycin have symptoms of rash, exudative erythema multiforme, reversible serum aspartate aminotransferase serum alanine aminotransferase, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and other allergies reactions.
Local reactions: Occasionally there are symptoms of pain, induration and aseptic abscesses at the injection site after intramuscular injection. Patient who has long-term intravenous infusion should be care of getting phlebitis.
Gastrointestinal reactions: Occasional patient may have symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. 1-2% of patients may have pseudomembranous colitis.
Allergies: a small number of patients may have drug-induced rash and occasionally there is exfoliative dermatitis.
Clindamycin makes no toxic effects on the hematopoietic system as uaual, occasionally there are symptoms of mild transient neutropenia, increased eosinophils, and thrombocytopenia.
There may be a transient alkaline phosphatase, mildly elevated serum transaminases and jaundice, kidney dysfunction.
Clindamycin phosphate will be quickly hydrolyzed to clindamycin with reaction of alkaline phosphatase in blood after clindamycin phosphate enters human body.
Pharmacokinetics in normal human shows: After single intravenous infusion of 0.6g clindamycin phosphate, clindamycin in blood immediately reaches peak concentration and the vale is 11.09 ± 2.02mg / l; 8-hour plasma concentration is1.69 ± 0.35mg / l. After single intramuscular injection of 0.6g, clindamycin in blood willreach the peak concentration in 1 to 2 hours ,and the vlue is 5.92 ± 1.45mg / l; 8-hour plasma concentration is 2.51 ± 0.91mg / l and effective blood concentration can be maintained for over 8 hours . After administration of clindamycin phosphate, the drug is mainly metabolized in the liver, and excreted via bile and feces. After intravenous infusion and intramuscular injection of 0.6g every 6 hours, concentration in bile is up to 48-55mg / l, and part of the drug is excreted via urine. 8 hours excretion rates are 11.72 ± 1.33% and 10.51 ± 2.68% respectively.
Clindamycin/cleocin having a function of neuromuscular blockade and may have funtion of increase of other neuromuscular blockers. Therefore, patients who use these drugs should be careful to take clindamycin.
It has been confirmed that clindamycin has antagonism with erythromycin and chloramphenicol, which is clinical significance that the two drugs should not be used simultaneously with clindamycin.
The drug has incompatibility with novobiocin, kanamycin, ampicillin, phenytoin, phenobarbital hydrochloride, theophylline, calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate.
The drug may aggravate respiratory center inhibition and opioid analgesic combination.
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